United Arab Emirates | Geography, History, Finance & More
United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven emirates originally formed in 1971 located in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. It has a 1,318 kilometer-long coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. Also shares the border area with Saudi Arabia to the west and south, Oman to the east and northeast, and shares 19 km of the border area with Qatar on the northwest.

Abu Dhabi is the capital as well as the largest emirate of UAE. The emirates covered 84% of the federation’s total area and were considered a central oil industry. The direct production of oil and gas increases the country’s GDP by about 30%.

Dubai is considered as the second largest (based on land area) as well as the wealthiest emirate of the federation. It is situated in the Persian Gulf and within the Arabian Desert. It also shares the border area of Abu Dhabi to the south, north side from Sharjah and southeast from Oman.

Dubai is famous for tourism and is also considered as a business center. It has unique architecture and has a collection of artificial islands, the world’s fourth-tallest, the Burj al Arab, luxury residential areas are also the destination of tourists. Sharjah, Ajman, Ra’s al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaywayn are considered to be the smallest emirates of the UAE federation and also occupy Peninsula.

Al-Fujairah is the seventh emirate and faces the Gulf of Oman. The country’s official language is Arabic. 96% of the population is Muslim as official religion is Islam.

History of the UAE

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Traced back to 6000 B.C, the federation of seven monarchies has no existence. The surrounding regions were referred to as the Arabian Peninsula.

The Palaeolithic age from 6000 – 3500 B.C, in this period people used to live in caves, stones were used as tools, and they hunted birds and wild animals. Fishing, plants collecting and cave paintings were major characteristics of the era. Pottery evidence was found and preserved in Sharjah, Abu Dhabi, Ra’s al Khaimah, and Umm al- Qaywayn.

Some poetry with geometric shape was discovered in Al Jazeera in Ra’s al Khaimah, in Hamriyah in Sharjah, and some areas of Umm al- Qaywayn. The Bronze age period from 3200 BC to 1300BC was named as the bronze age period. This age has three periods; the Jebel Hafeet period, the Wadi Suq period, and the Umm Al Nar period.

In Al Ay in Abu Dhabi tombs were founded in Jebel Hafeet in 3200 BC and were named the Jebel Hafeet period. Archaeological findings show emergence in 1300 BC to 300 BC named the iron age period. People in this era used ceramics, gold, bronze, iron, decorative stones, beads, handmade jewelry, swords, axes, arrowheads, pottery, fish hooks, and knives. Besides, groundwater extraction-falaj irrigation systems have emerged for continuous cultivation in the desert climate.

Islamic period started in UAE after the opening of Mecca in AD 630-1258. The Gulf region accepted the invitation to Islam. The Islamic was in peak during the Umayyad caliphate and Abbasid caliphate. Trading was also started in this period between the Gulf region and other areas in southeast Asia.

Portuguese were the first Europeans who arrived in the Arabian Peninsula in 1948 during the period of AD 1498-1650. In AD 1966- 1971, UAE emerged as a state in 1971 due to the efforts of Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan. On 18th July 1971, the six rulers of emirates decided to form a union and in a meeting historical declaration was made that “The supreme council facilitates the people of the UAE, as well as our friends and neighbors, and declares the United Arab Emirates as an Independent state”.(Ra’s al Khamyah became the part of UAE in 1972).

Domestic Policies

In 1973, Abu Dhabi initiated a centralization movement. The seven emirates agreed to merge their arm forces in 1976, and later on right to purchase weapons and formation of the army has been given to the federation. Some conflicts regarding centralization that have been raised in 1978 prompted Dubai and Ra’s al Khaimah to refuse to submit their forces to federal command.

Both emirates denied merging their revenues and armed forces but later on both ended their opposition. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the first president of UAE. The first election was held in UAE in 2006. Only the President has the right to select the prime Minister.

Parliament is based upon 40 members; half from the supreme council and half from Minister’s council or cabinet. There is no concept of National parties in the UAE. There is no concept of National parties in the UAE. Emirs are appointed by their respective tribes. In 2015, one-third of voting-age citizens had been expanded by the electoral college. 

In 2008 UAE, had also faced a global financial crisis which slowed down the country’s economy. Dubai was affected badly as most of the construction projects were suspended and real estate business values dropped by 50% in a year. Abu Dhabi helped Dubai and gave $10 billion to pay debts on time. In 2010 Dubai inaugurated the world’s fourth-tallest man-made building Burj Khalifa and Dubai’s real estate market soon recovered.

The UAE is a country that warmly welcomes people from different cultures and also provides friendly business opportunities. The major focus of the country is to maintain peace and to promote a business-friendly environment.

Foreign relations of UAE

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The UAE has friendly relations with more than 60 countries, including China, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, the United Nations, and Western European Countries.

It’s also a member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, the organization of petroleum exporting countries, Gulf Cooperation Council, the non-Aligned Movement, and the world Trade. The UAE occupies a critical strategic position on the Arabian Gulf and ranked as the world’s 6th highest-oil producing country and 7th largest country in natural gas production. In addition, the UAE also has a free trading zone to promote a friendly business environment. The UAE is ranked 5th out of 185 countries due to friendly and easiest free trading zones.

The UAE also supports the fight against terrorism at the International level. The UAE also plays a vital role in anti-money laundering and has frozen the accounts of known terrorists. The government also takes initiatives and formulate laws and policies against money laundering.

The federation of seven emirates actively promotes peaceful resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Also supports the West Bank and Gaza, the two major working agencies of the United Nations in the UN development program, and the UN Relief and Work Agency for Palestine Refugees. The charitable organizations of the UAE including Red Crescent and many other charitable foundations contributed the US $554 million in projects for Palestine Refugees. The UAE is the first country Arab country to do so. 

Land United Arab Emirates

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The United Arab Emirates has 83,600 km(square) of land area which is slightly smaller than Portugal. The total border area of the federation covers 867 Km,410 km of the border area with Oman, and 457km of an area with Saudi Arabia. It has a 1,318-kilometer-long coastline along the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

There was a dispute between Saudi Arabia and the UAE regarding the precise area of the border. Saudi Arabia claimed that it was the only country connected with the land border of Qatar in a 1974 agreement. While UAE claims the border area of Qatar to the northwest. Saudia Arabia also claims Shaybah oil fields to the south.

The federation of seven emirates UAE has been in a dispute in Iran claiming the ownership of three Islands-Abu Mussa, Greater Tunb (Tunb Al-Kubra), and Lesser Tunb (Tunb Al-sughra). The Ra’s al-Khaimah smallest emirate of Emirates claims Greater and Lesser Tung while Sharjah claims Abu Mussa. Whenever this dispute is highlighted on National forums Iran always refused to talk. 

Geography of United Arab Emirates

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The country has three geographical zones; flat low-lying, desserts containing the world’s largest sand dunes. The has the most deserted area. The UAE desserts are famous all over the world as most of the desert sports activities are held in it.

The Great sandy desert, Rub ’al Khali is the world’s largest and famous desert as it has reserves of oil and gas beneath its sand. The Al Badayer is famous for best dunes and Liwa Oasis is one of the most beautiful oases located east of Abu Dhabi is also the destination of tourists. The major ports of UAE are Jebel Ali southwest of Dubai, Khor Fakkan, Sharjah, and Minah Zayed located in Abu Dhabi.

Climate Of United Arab Emirates

The country has hot and humid weather conditions as most of the area is covered by desert, large sand dunes. In spring strong winds bring sands and dust storms. In winter, especially from December to February the maximum temperature range is 24 ⁰C to 27 ⁰C.

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In Summers day time temperature is quite high from April to October the temperatures range from 40 ⁰C to 42 0 C. On extremely hot days the temperature ranges from 42 ⁰C to 47⁰ C. The Emirates has a humid climate. The winds coming from the Persian Gulf result in the hottest summer with unbearable heat.

Plant and Production

The country has a humid and desert climate. Most of the country area is covered by deserts, large sand dunes due to which vegetation is limited but in an Al-Ayn oasis date palm trees are grown as they are raised in extremely hot climates. A country contributes to the world’s 6% in date production.

Golden barrel cactus is widely found in the United Arabs emirates as the cacti family loves hot and dry soil for growth. Another famous tree that thrives in UAE gardens is Frangipani Tree, they can also bear poor soil and hot weather conditions.

It grows as a small tree with beautifully white, yellow, or pink flowers. Buganvillas is also grown in emirates garden blooms with white tiny flowers. Boganvillas can bear hot weather, direct sunlight, and can grow in dry soil conditions.

Ra’s al-Khaimah produces cauliflower, cabbage, tomatoes as major vegetables. The emirate of Fujairah is also known for its large scale mango production. It’s the country’s second crop after date production.

Wild Life

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The Wild animals of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) include endangered species like the Arabian Leopard, one of the rarest animals sighted in the Judaean Desert. Arabian Oryx is the national animal of the country mostly found in deserts and steppe areas.

They are white with thin brown legs and straight long horns animals. They eat herbs, fruits, buds, etc. Arabian wolf is also native to the UAE and lives in the desert. It’s an omnivore that hunts cats, hares, etc. Arabian Tahr is another endangered species found only in UAE and northern Oman. The animal gets royal protection from UAE.

Some of the endangered species that cause death on the spot include Deathstalker (belongs to the Scorpio family), carpet viper, and horned vipers. Arabian sand cat, Arabian wolf, Arabian sand Gazelle, Arabian Red Fox, falcons, Arabian Toad are some of the other animals that are found in the desert of the Arabian Peninsula.

Some of the domestic animals are goats, sheep, and camels. All the animals and endangered species found in the Emirates can survive without water for a long time and inhabitants of the desert.

People of UAE

Ethnic Composition of the United Arab Emirates (2019)

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The United Arab Emirates is one of the most liberal countries; only 11.5% of the emirate’s residents are citizens.59.4% of the population is South Asian including 38.3% Indians,9.5% Pakistani,9.4 % of Bangladeshi. Almost 10.2% of Egyptians,6.1% Filipino, and 15 % of others are part of the Arab population.

The total population of the United Arab Emirates is 9.89 Million (2020) according to the data provided by the World Bank. Abu Dhabi is considered as the richest emirate. The settlement patterns of the UAE are quite interesting as 86.5% of people live in cities and13.5% of people live in rural areas.

Languages and Religion

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The official religion of the country is Islam and the official language is Arabic. Due to a diversified environment, different languages are spoken like Hindi, Pashto, Urdu, Balochi, and Persian. The most frequently spoken language is English.

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The literacy rate of the United Arab Emirates is 90%. Modern Arabic is taught in schools and citizens of emirates speak Arabic as their mother language. The most famous and largest mosque of UAE is Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque, located in Abu Dhabi.

The architecture of the mosque is unique and fascinating as it portrays Islamic architecture, Moorish, and Mughal architecture. The mosque took 12 years to complete. It’s the largest mosque in the UAE where more than 41,000 people can worship.

Demographic trends

According to the World Population Review, the growth rate of the United Arab Emirates is about 1.23% and contributes 0.13 % in the world’s population. The growth rate of the UAE dropping rapidly as the fertility rate is relatively low is about 1.42 births per woman. The population growth has been decreasing since 2010.

Economy

The UAE has a mixed free-market economy the major productions are oil and gas which plays a vital role in increasing the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The other sectors that help to increase the country’s GDP include real estate, construction, transportation, manufacturing, and hotels.

Agriculture and Fishing 

The two small emirates of UAE, Ra’s al-Khaimah and Al-Fujairah are known for agricultural production. Ra’s al-Khaimah produces vegetables like cauliflower, shrubs, eggplants, tomatoes, and cabbage. Dates are a major production of countries as they contribute 6% in the world’s date production.

Dates are considered as country national fruit. Along with that citrus fruits and mangoes are others produced in the country. Al-Fujairah is known for its largest production of mangoes in the country. The United Arab Emirates is also the highest consumer of fish, even net fishing is allowed in the water of Abu Dhabi.

The UAE waters are home to 20 commercial fish species. The major fishing areas in UAE are Fujairah, Ra’s al-Khaimah, Abu Dhabi and Sharjah. Along with that, the country produces dairy products, eggs, and poultry to meet its own needs. The domestic animals include goats, sheep, and camel from them people meet their own needs. The country also imports other foodstuffs especially grains.

Resources and Power

Abu Dhabi is responsible for oil production; it contributes 95% of the country’s oil production. Oil was discovered in Abu Dhabi in 1958 at the Murban Bab oil field. Production of natural gas and petroleum contributes one-third of the country’s GDP. The first president of the Union, Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi, uses oil revenue to develop Abu Dhabi. He also invested in developing the country’s infrastructure, schools, hospitals, and mosques. 

The UAE is the world’s 6th highest-oil producing country and 7th largest country in natural gas production. Now Abu Dhabi produces 92 million barrels of oil. Dubai also produces petroleum and contributes one-sixth of the country’s GDP. Sharjah also produces oil of approximately 1.6 billion barrels.

The country also has the largest natural gas reserves and most fields are found in Abu Dhabi. The largest oilfield is Upper Zakum, located in Abu Dhabi. The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) is a state-owned company in the UAE. The country is heavily dependent on producing oil and gas. The country exports sixty-two percent of its crude oil to Japan.

The UAE has the highest energy capita as the country heavily relies on energy-intensive technologies like air-conditioning consumes huge amounts of electricity. Water distillation is another energy-intensive technology used by the UAE. To overcome these problems UAE contracted with the Korean Electric Power Company (KEPC) in 2009, to build four nuclear reactors in the country. Barakah Nuclear Power Plant is the country’s first nuclear power plant located in Abu Dhabi can produce 5.6GW of energy developed jointly by KEPC and Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC).

Manufacturing

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To diversify the economy efforts are made to lessen the country’s dependence on oil and gas. Some of the manufacturing companies that play a significant role are construction industries, food and beverages industry, and clothing and textile industries.

The construction of hotels, skyscrapers, shopping malls, artificial islands, hospitals, educational and religious institutes laid the foundation of construction companies. The development of construction companies started in the 1960s.

At the initial level industries just manufactured tiles, slabs, marbles, and cement but with time, they shifted their production to a higher level. Ra’s al-Khaimah is known for being the home of cement factories.

The food and beverage industry also shows their presence in the market by providing multiple services like fish and meat production, production of dairy products, canning plants, fruits, and vegetable production, etc. The clothing and textile industry also contributes to the country’s GDP. Other industries like electronics, pharmaceuticals, and high tech-manufacturing have small contributions to the country’s economy.

Finance

With the collaboration of Abu Dhabi and Dubai, the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates was established in the 1980s. Both emirates deposit half of their earned revenues to establish the institution. The official currency of the UAE is Dirham’s; the Central Bank also issues Dirhams.

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There are also foreign, commercial, and domestic banks in the country. Abu Dhabi’s Bank of Credit and Commercial International owned by the ruling family underwent serious investigation of corruption and was closed down in 1991. The first official stock exchange market of emirates was created in Dubai in 2000, and has gained popularity with time and is now considered as the world’s biggest business center.

Trade

There are almost thirty-seven free trading zones in the United Arab Emirates which attract investors and offer no personal and corporate tax. In free zones, foreign ownership is allowed but restricts participation in domestic companies.

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The biggest exporting, free zones in Dubai in Jebel Ali free zone or Jafza was established in 1985. According to the report of World, Bank UAE is ranked as the 5th due to friendly or easiest trading zones out of 185 countries worldwide and also has ranked 26th easiest place to do business.

Major exports of the country include crude oil, natural gas, and dates. Other than that imports consist of heavy machinery, food materials especially grains, surgical equipment, chemicals, gold, precious stones, and other foodstuffs.

Japan is the biggest consumer of the UAE. Other trading partners are India, Germany, Italy, U. S, China, and the U.K. Also re-exports trading with neighboring Gulf countries.

Services

The service sectors including business and real estate, tourism, transport, personal and social services, defense, and construction contribute a lot to the country’s GDP. Dubai is a tourist hub due to its unique architecture.

Dubai and Abu Dhabi have veto power in the country’s federal legislature. Dubai is less dependent on oil production, major focus areas are real estate projects, construction, and trading that’s why it is considered as a global business center.

Tourism is another service-sector that contributes 12.1% of the country’s GDP. Due to unique and attractive artificial islands, skyscrapers, the world’s fourth-tallest, and most expensive hotel, Burj al Arab (was built in 1999) Dubai is the destination of almost every tourist.

The world’s famous man-made structure Burj Khalifa is another spectacular project of construction. Abu Dhabi is the second tourist hub approximately 4.6 million tourists visit Abu Dhabi per year.

The famous places of Abu Dhabi to visit include the Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque (the world-famous mosque), Ferrari World constructed on Formula one racing Car theme is another piece of attraction for thrill-seekers.

Other places which are the source of attraction for tourists include the louver Abu Dhabi museum, boat tours, Qasr Al-Hosn fort (also known as an old fort or white fort), Warner Bros World, Yas Water World, Yas Island, Desert Safari, Heritage village and many other spectacular places to visit.

Labour and Taxation

The United Arab Emirates tax policy is quite flexible as it does not levy income tax on individuals. Corporate tax levies on oil and gas companies, foreign banks.

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Excise tax is levied on carbonated drinks, energy drinks, and products that are harmful to health like tobacco and tobacco products. Almost 50% of the excise tax is charged on carbonated drinks,100% excise tax is charged on energy drinks, tobacco products, and electronic smoking devices.

Value-added tax is levied on the majority of goods and services. The UAE has a diversified economy, several foreigners work and establish their business in the UAE.

An Emiratisation program offers job opportunities to emirates citizens and promotes development-oriented policies which encourage emirates citizens to participate in the program. Emiratis participation contributes a lot to a country’s economy.

Public and private sector organizations are also encouraged to adapt to Emiratisation policies by establishing a special quota. Incentives are also provided to encourage Emiratis employees.

Transportation and Telecommunication Services

The transportation services in the UAE are quite fascinating. The UAE is considered as most tolerable country as it welcomes people from every country without any discrimination.

The country has quite a rich transport system. Most of the transportation services are controlled by the government like metro trains, buses, and taxis. The taxis are regulated by the Road and Transport Authority (RTA), taxi is the most convenient mode of transportation in the UAE. The fare and fuel rates are quite cheaper.

The taxi stands are available all over the UAE, and one can easily find a taxi whenever needed. For the convenience of tourists’ online taxi applications or services are launched. The UAE also has a wide network of buses and trains that connect different places with affordable fares. Passengers can easily purchase tickets directly or through NoI Cards (Fare Card).

The government of UAE and several transport authorities offer special payment cards for transport fares. In Dubai, electronic ticketing cards are used for all modes of transportation. In Sharjah, Sayer cards are used for ticketing while you are traveling in buses.

To make your journey hassle-free in Dubai, different types of cards are used for buses network categorized as Temporary, Anonymous, and personalized. These smart cards or special cards can be purchased from ticket centers, from RTA offices, transport authorities, and can be purchased online.

The airports of UAE are quite the busiest airports. There are nine airports in UAE; Abu Dhabi airport, Dubai Airport (also known as Dubby Airport), Sharjah Airport, Fujairah Airport, Khaimah Airport, Al Ain Airport, and Al Bateen Executive Airport.

The UAE has 12 commercial ports, which are also means of trading. Also, 60% of cargo is shipped through Seaports. Major seaports of UAE include Mina Zayed Port (Abu Dhabi) is a 40 years old cargo port dedicated to cruise liners, Jebel Ali(Dubai), Mina Rashid(Dubai), Mina Khalid (Sharjah), and Khor Fakkan (Sharjah).

The major internet service provider in UAE is “Etisalat” which started to provide internet services in 2000. The second service provider is “du” started to provide services in 2005. Other services like radio, television, cellular phones, and telephones are widely used throughout the country.

Government and Society

The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven monarchies; the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ajman, Ra’s al-Khaimah, Umm al-Qaywayn, Fujairah, and Sharjah. The federal supreme council has higher governmental authority. Which is composed of rulers of seven emirates.

The president and vice president are elected from the members of the supreme council for five years. The Prime Minister is nominated by the president. The Prime Minister has the authority to appoint cabinet members.

The Parliament is based on forty members of the supreme council and cabinet also known as Federation National Council (FNC). FNC is responsible to examine the proposed legislation by the supreme court and provides advice to the Cabinet of UAE.

Local Government

The UAE is a federation of seven Emirates and each emirate has its ruler succeeded by its Crown Prince. The country has a federal system of government where no powers are assigned to the federal government by the constitution.

The federal government has the power to administers foreign policy, economic policies run social welfares and trusts. In each emirate, there is a Ruler’s court which is considered the most powerful authority. An executive court work under the Ruler’s Court and several agencies that carry out the emirate’s plans and policies.

Amongst the seven emirates, Abu Dhabi and Dubai are the powerful and strongest emirates. As both excised significant power at the individual level.

Justice

The UAE is an Islamic country and follows a legal code purely based on Shariah. The Constitution of the UAE treats every individual equally. No person shall be discriminated against based on race, gender, nationality, and religious beliefs.

Punishment should be given to the accused person only. An accused person has the right to appoint a person who conducts his defense during the trial. The UAE guarantees safety and justice to all individuals as per the constitution.

The UAE also defines women’s rights in the legal constitution; they have access to education, jobs, and also hold social and health benefits in Government offices. The UAE is a country that promotes gender equality; they have a special set of policies to protect women. Emirati’s women’s day is celebrated on the 28th of August. For empowering women’s General Women’s Union of UAE serves to help women for building their careers. 

Politics Structure

Each emirate of the UAE has its ruler. Elections are not based on the party system. There are no political parties in the UAE as political parties are forbidden in UAE.

The Federal National Council (NFC is also known as parliament) is based on 40 members; members of the supreme council and minister’s council (cabinet). Only the president has the right to appoint a Prime Minister. Each emirate has its local government assures the proper implication of constitutional laws and policies of the state in all organizations.

Security

In 1976, Sheikh Zayed and the supreme council made efforts to unify armed forces under a single banner. The main objective of the Armed forces is to maintain peace in the state. For encouragement, several military institutions have been established to provide military education and knowledge.

Advanced security systems are developed to make work easier for forces including the “Falcon Eye System”, Flying Bikes, IRIS System, etc.

To engage the public in maintaining security systems the government of UAE has launched several systems that help individuals to raise security concerns they encounter. Includes, Al Ameen Service-Dubai Police, man Electronic System, AL Najeed Service-Sharjah, and many other systems that are in progress.

Health and welfare

In UAE four different regulatory bodies administer Healthcare includes Emirates Health Authority, Ministry of Health and Prevention, Dubai Health Authority, and the Ministry of Health and Prevention. Health facilities are free only for Emiratis.

The people who are not citizens of the UAE can avail of Private Healthcare services. The federal government of each emirate is responsible to provide social assistance to the citizens of the UAE. Efforts are made to improve the Healthcare structure.

Housing and Residential Facilities

The government of UAE launched several housing programs for citizens with low incomes. The government facilitates deserving citizens by providing free housing loans.

The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is responsible for organizing housing sectors. The Sheikh Zayed Housing program established in 1999, provides interest-free loans to citizens with low-income levels.

Housing and residential facilities are also provided at emirate levels through housing programs include the Abu Dhabi Housing Authority, directorate of Housing, Sheikh Saud Housing program, Mohammed Bin Rashid Housing Foundation grants residential plots, interest-free loans.

Education

Education is compulsory in all emirates of UAE and is free for all the children from ages 6 to 12. The education system of the UAE is quite flexible, it is divided into three categories, public, private, and higher-level educational institutes.

The private educational institutes follow different curriculums and public sector educational institutes follow the Arabic curriculum. Education is compulsory for all men and women.

Technical education is also given to students at a higher level. Sheikh Zayed University established in 1998 was the first university to offer technical education to female students. The literacy rate of UAE was 93.2% according to the survey held in 2015.

Cultural Life

The UAE is a sovereign state consisting of seven emirates. Islam is the official religion in the United Arab Emirates. The UAE is a Muslim country and follows Islamic Culture.

The Country promotes tolerance, hospitality, family cohesion, and encourages citizens to bring peace and harmony in society. The government has taken steps to preserve the heritage and give awareness to people by holding festivals and events, establishing heritage villages, forming clubs, establishing and maintaining museums, constructions of mosques and parks.

To create awareness among the young generation annual festivals are conducted such as Sheikh Zayed Heritage Festival, Sultan bin Zayed Heritage Festival, and Sharjah Heritage Days. To promote awareness clubs are formed. Heritage Villages and Museums are also established to preserve the Country’s heritage.

Traditions

Eid al Fitr and Eid al Adha are two major Islamic festivals for the Muslim community. The traditional dress for men is Kandura that white loose garment covers the whole body to the ankle and Bisht which is a loose robe worn on the top of kandura, Bisht is worn on special occasions such as Eid, wedding, or when visiting a sheik with traditional leather sandals.

Famous cuisines include fish, lamb, mutton, beef, and camel meat. lamb and chicken are the preferred meat. Dates are also part of their meal. Common beverages are coffee, tea, and flavored green tea. Asida, Jami, Harees, Al Jabab bread are famous Emirati cuisines.

Fresh fruit and vegetables are preferred to eat including lemon, figs, and limes. Shawarma and Shish Taouk Sandwich is a famous cuisine of Abu Dhabi.

Art

 Music, poetry, literature, painting, weaving, pottery, and embroidery are famous art forms blooming in UAE. Like other countries, institutes are established to honor art and art forms.

To promote art and culture several art galleries and museums are established and maintained to save the heritage of the UAE’s culture. Calligraphy is a traditional art of the UAE.

There are 47 museums in UAE that display old coins, musical instruments, dances, traditional clothing, etc. Sheikh Zayed Palace Museum (also known as Al-Ayn Museum) is the biggest museum in UAE. Louvre Abu Dhabi Museum is one of the most famous museums in the UAE.

Annual events are sponsored by The Ministry of Information and Culture to create awareness amongst people. The most famous annual events and festivals include the Sharjah Theatre festival, Dubai air show, Annual International Book Fair mostly conducted in Abu Dhabi and Sharjah.

Sports

The most practiced sports in UAE are Camel racing, falconry, Saluki racing, jujitsu, and shooting. Football is the national sport of UAE. Many International sports are hosted and sponsored by the Government of UAE to encourage youth to participate in sports-related activities clubs, groups, and associations that are also formed that provide sports-related activities.

The Formula One World Championship is hosted in Abu Dhabi in 2009. The country also hosted the FIFA World Cup in 2018, and also hosted Asian Cup Tournament.

Newspaper and Media

Along with its strongest telecommunication network, UAE also has a wide network of broadcasting radio and television programs daily from Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Dubai, and Ra’s al Khaimah in English and Arabic language. Newspapers are also published daily in both English and Arabic language. The main news centers are located in Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah.

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